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Cyberwarfare is the use or targeting in a battlespace or warfare context of computers,  and networks.
  • Sabotage: Military and financial computer systems are at risk for the disruption of normal operations and equipment, such as communications.
  • Espionage and/or security breaches: These illegal methods are used to disable networks, software.
  • Internet; to steal or acquire special information from rival institutions or individuals for military, political or financial gain.
There has been controversy over whether such operations can be called “war”.
Nevertheless, powers have been developing cyber capabilities and engaged in cyber warfare,
Both offensively and defensively, including the United States, China, Russia, Israel, and the United Kingdom.
Two other notable players are Iran and North Korea.
Some governments have made it an integral part of their overall military strategy, with some having invested heavily in cyber warfare capability.
One kind of cyber warfare involves the kind of hacking that is the concern of penetration testing; in such cases, a government entity has established.

it as a warfighting capability, or a non-governmental entity has used it as a weapon against a state or its concerns.

This capability uses the same set of penetration, in the case of United States doctrine, in a strategic way to:
  • Prevent cyber attacks against critical infrastructure.
  • Minimize damage and recovery time from cyber attacks.

Offensive operations are also part of these national-level strategies for officially declared wars as well as undeclared secretive operations.

Cyberwarfare can take many forms, including:

  • viruses, computer worms, and malware that can take down water supplies, transportation systems, power grids, critical infrastructure, and military systems;
  • denial-of-service(DoS) attacks, take action that prevents legitimate users from accessing targeted computer systems, devices or other network resources;
  • Hacking and theft of critical data from institutions, governments and businesses; and
  • Ransomware that holds computer systems hostage until the victims pay the ransom.

Types of cyberwarfare attacks

Increasingly, cybercriminals are attacking governments through their critical infrastructure, including transportation systems, banking systems and
  • Power grids, water supplies, dams, hospitals, and critical manufacturing.
The threat of cyber warfare attacks grows as a nation’s critical systems are increasingly connected to the internet.
  • Even if these systems can be properly secured, they can still be hacked by perpetrators recruited by nation-states to find weaknesses and exploit them.


  • APT attacks on infrastructure can devastate a country.
  • For example, attacks on a nation’s utility systems can wreak havoc by causing widespread power outages, but an attacker with access to hydropower grids could also conceivably cause flooding by opening dams.
  • Cyber attacks on a government’s computer systems can be used to support conventional warfare efforts.
  • Such attacks can  make government officials communicate  with one another; enable attackers to steal secret  or personal communications,
  • Or release employee and citizen personal data, Security numbers and tax information.
                           Why are governments investing in cyber warfare right now?
Governments are increasingly aware that modern societies are so reliant on computer systems to run everything from financial services to transport networks,
That using hackers armed with viruses or damaging as traditional military campaign using troops armed with guns and missiles.
Unlike traditional military attacks, a cyber attack can be launched instantaneously from any distance,
With little obvious evidence of any build-up, unlike a traditional military operation.
Such as attack would be extremely hard to trace back with any certainty to its perpetrators, making retaliation harder.
As result governments and intelligence agencies worry that digital attacks against vital infrastructure — like banking systems or power grids
will give attackers a way of bypassing a country’s traditional defenses, and are racing to improve their computer security.
The fear of being vulnerable to the cyberweapons of their rivals plus a desire to harness,
these tools to bolster their own standing in the world is leading many countries into a cyber arms races.

                    Which countries are preparing for cyberwar?

Pretty much every single nation with the money and the skills are investing in cyber warfare and cyber defense capabilities.
According to US intelligence chiefs, more than 30 countries are developing offensive cyber attack capabilities,
Although most of these government hacking programmes shrouded in secrecy.
This has lead to concerns that a secret cyber arms race has already begun.
The US has long warned that Russia has a “highly advanced offensive cyber program” and has “conducted damaging and/or disruptive cyber attacks, including attacks on critical infrastructure networks”.
The Pentagon has said that China is looking to narrow the gap with the US in terms of cyber warfare capabilities,
  • And has warned that China has attempted to probe US networks for data useful in any future crisis: “Targeted information could enable PLA [People’s Liberation Army]
  • Cyber forces to build an operational picture of US defense networks, military disposition, logistics,
  • Related military capabilities that could exploit prior to or during a crisis,” it warned.
  • China aims to narrow the cyberwarfare gap with the US
 What do cyberweapons look like?
Imaging the smartest hackers with the biggest budgets aiming to break the biggest systems they can; that’s what the high end of cyber weapons can look like — projects involving teams of developers and millions of dollars.

In general, the tools of cyberwarfare can vary from the incredibly sophisticated to the utterly basic.

Many are part of the standard hacker toolkit, and a series of different tools could use in concert as part of a cyber attack.
A (DDoS) attack was at the core of the attacks on Estonia in the year of 2007.
Other professional and standard hacker and attackers techniques are likely to form part of a cyber attack; phishing emails to trick users into handing over passwords or,
Other data can allow attackers further access to networks, for example.
Malware and viruses could form part of an attack like the Shamoon virus,
According to the Washington Post, after revelations about Russian meddling in the run-up to the 2016 US Presidential elections, President Obama authorized the planting of cyber weapons in Russia’s infrastructure.
“The implants developed by the NSA and designed so that they could trigger remotely as part of retaliatory cyber-strike in the face of Russian aggression.

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